Friday, January 17, 2020

Educational Management Theories And Concept Education Essay

The construct of transformational leading has drawn a considerable attending from direction research workers and specializers. This construct has been initiated by Burns ( 1978 ) and developed by Bass ( 1985 ) to include certain behaviors of a transformational leader and being function theoretical accounts in forepart of their followings which will ensue in edifice trust with followings and accomplishing value congruity between leaders and followings. The consequence of school leading on educational results has been widely debated in recent decennaries. Currently, school systems around the Earth are concentrating on pupil accomplishments authorising school leaders along with course of study and answerability models. The paper aims to supply an overview of research on the effects of transformational leading on instructor attitudes and educational results. It refers to eight research undertakings conducted in many different school systems based on quantitative method attack consisting little scale medium size and mega research undertakings for the benefits of all types of school stakeholders on how a leader can better pupil accomplishments. The first article that is reviewed is a paper presented at NZARE AARE, Auckland, New Zealand in November 2002 titled The Impact of Transformational Leadership Style of the School Principal on School Learning Environments and Selected Teacher Outcomes: A Preliminary Report by Alan Barnett. The intent of this paper is to describe on an probe of the relationships between the transformational and transactional leading behavior of school principals in New South Wales State secondary schools and some selected instructor results and school acquisition environment concepts. The theoretical model presented in this paper is based on a mediated-effects theoretical account of effectual schools as discussed by Hallinger and Heck ( 1998, p.162 ) . The author acknowledges that antecedent variables can hold an of import causal influence that consequence desired results such as pupil accomplishment. However, the author mentioned that the focal point of this survey is to analyze the relationship between the leading patterns of the principal and school and schoolroom variables, viz. school larning environment and teacher satisfaction. A study was carried out in 52 indiscriminately selected schools affecting 458 instructors from across New South Wales. The staff sample size ( n=458 ) consisted of 200 males ( 43.7 % ) and 235 ( 51.3 % ) females ( losing = 23 or 5.0 % ) , the bulk of whom ( 60.0 % ) were full clip instructors. A smaller figure ( n=132 ) came from publicities places held within their schools ( 28.9 % ) . The bulk of respondents ( n=340 ; 74.2 % ) had more than 11 old ages learning experience, and had been in their current school for more than 6 old ages ( 49.1 % ) . 291 staff ( 63.5 % ) reported learning within their current principal for more than 2 old ages. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X ( Short ) developed by Bass and Avolio ( 1997 ) was used to mensurate leading behavior, while, the School Learning Environment Questionnaire developed by Fraser ( 1986 ) was used to measure school larning environment. Factor analysis was used to find the cogency of the leading theoretical account developed by Bass and Avolio ( 1997 ) and the school larning environment theoretical account developed by Fraser ( 1986 ) in the Australian school context. The factor analysis of leading points suggested that one transformational factor ( vision ) , one transformational/transactional intercrossed factor ( individualized consideration ) and one non-leadership factor ( laissez-faire ) factor were apparent. The analysis of school larning environment points identified seven factors. Four outcome factors were incorporated that is the overall satisfaction with leading, perceptual experiences of instructor influence, perceptual experiences of instruc tor effectivity, and perceptual experiences of instructor control. Multilevel patterning analysis was used to research the relationship between leading behaviors, school acquisition environment factors and instructor results. Contrary to what might be expected, consequences from the analysis of the leading behaviours factors with instructor results suggested that instructor results like overall satisfaction with leading is more closely and extremely correlated with individualized consideration instead than with vision. Further, the leading behaviour factors demonstrated differential correlativities with each of the school larning environment factors, bespeaking that principals may aim their leading behavior to hold maximal impact in any attempt at modifying school larning environment. The 2nd article that is reviewed is a research by Kerry Barnett, John McCormick and Robert Conners from University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, titled Transformational leading: Panacea, placebo, or job? taken from the Journal of Educational Administration volume 39, pages 24 to 46 ( 2001 ) . The intent of this survey is to describe on an probe of the relationships between the transformational and transactional leading behavior of school principals in selected New South Wales State secondary schools with some instructor results and facets of school learning civilization. Teacher outcomes in concern here are excess attempt, effectivity and satisfaction. Properties of transformational leading and school learning civilization was laid down every bit theoretical model in this survey. A study was carried out in 12 indiscriminately selected secondary schools located in the Sydney Metropolitan country in New South Wales, Australia, and 15 indiscriminately selected instructors from each school were requested to finish questionnaires. Of the 12 schools, 124 instructors returned completed questionnaires stand foring a 68 per centum response rate. The sample comprised 54 per centum female and 46 per centum male instructors and 75 per centum were aged 30-59 old ages. The instructors in the sample held assorted places in the school, including full-time schoolroom instructors ( 57 per centum ) , caput instructors ( 23 per centum ) , deputy principals ( 5 per centum ) and others, such as bibliothecs, callings advisors, parttime instructors, support instructors ( 15 per centum ) . A sum of 64 per centum of the sample had more than 11 old ages of learning experience and 60 per centum had three to ten old ages of this experience at their current school. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire ( MLQ 5X ) developed by Bass and Avolio ( 1997 ) was used to mensurate leading manner, while, The Patterns of Adaptive Learning Survey ( PALS ) developed by Maehr et Al. ( 1996 ) was used to mensurate the dimensions of school-learning civilization. Factor analysis with chief axis factoring utilizing SPSS determined the cogency of the leading theoretical account proposed by Bass and Avolio ( 1997 ) and the school-learning civilization theoretical account proposed by Maehr et Al. ( 1996 ) . The factor analysis of leading points suggested that there were two factors which were transformational, two factors which were transactional and one instructor result factor. The analysis of school-learning civilization points identified five school learning civilization factors. The transformational leading behavior ( single concern ) was associated with the instructor outcomes – satisfaction, excess attempt and perceptual experience of leader effectivity. Contrary to what might be expected, transformational leading behavior ( vision/inspiration ) had a important negative association with pupil larning civilization. Significant interactions were found between vision/inspiration and active direction by exclusion with intrinsic motive for larning and between inactive direction by exclusion and vision/inspiration with extrinsic motive for larning. This suggests that the relationship between transformational and transactional leading behavior and school-learning civilization is more complex than might be first thought. The 3rd article that is reviewed is a research by Femke Geijsel and Peter Sleegers from the Department of Educational Sciences, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands, and Kenneth Leithwood and Doris Jantzi from the Centre for Leadership Development, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada, titled Transformational leading effects on instructors ‘ committedness and attempt toward school reform, taken from the Journal of Educational Administration, volume 41, pages 228 to 256 ( 2003 ) . The intent of this paper is to analyze the effects of transformational school leading on the committedness of instructors to school reform, and the attempt they are willing to give to such reform. It does so by constructing on the cognition from both educational and non-educational research into such effects. A theoretical account of such effects is tested utilizing two about comparable sets of quantitative informations collected independently by research squads in Canada and The Netherlands. Structural equation mold is applied to prove the theoretical account within each information set. Consequences of the Canadian and Dutch surveies are so compared. The model used to steer the enquiry about transformational leading effects consists of nine specific variables embedded in three general concepts, every bit good as the relationships among these variables and concepts. Harmonizing to this model, transformational signifiers of school leading have direct effects on instructors ‘ committedness to school reform and the excess attempt they devote to such reform. Such leading besides has indirect effects on instructor attempt through teacher motive. Although non measured in these surveies, it is assumed that instructors ‘ excess committedness and attempt consequences in alterations in their interactions with pupils which, in bend, influences pupils ‘ results. Dutch informations were collected from a study carried out in 45 secondary schools throughout The Netherlands affecting 1,347 instructors. At the clip of informations aggregation, all secondary schools were confronted with mandated large-scale school reform. Canadian informations were collected in one big territory in eastern Canada. All 1,444 instructors in 43 junior high and high schools in the territory were surveyed, half having Form A and half Form B of the study. At the clip of informations aggregation, all schools in this territory were confronted with outlooks for significant alteration from both the territory and provincial authorities that clearly called for the exercising of school-level leading. Both surveies collected informations about length of learning experience and gender. Teachers in the Dutch sample had somewhat more teaching experience than their Canadian opposite numbers: 63 per centum as compared with 59 per centum with more than 15 old ages ‘ experience. Independent sample t-tests in the Dutch sample show instructors with comparatively longer experience to hit significantly higher on the variables â€Å" single consideration † and â€Å" engagement in determination devising † and significantly lower on the variables â€Å" capacity beliefs † and â€Å" context beliefs † than their co-workers with less experience. The gender balance differed greatly, with male instructors consisting 70 per centum of the Dutch sample compared with 47 per centum of the Canadian sample. An independent sample t-test of the latter group identified merely one variable in which gender differences were apparent: females rated â€Å" personal ends † higher than their male co-workers, proposing gender was non a important factor in overall response forms in the Canadian survey. Independent sample t-tests in the Dutch sample indicated that females rated â€Å" capacity beliefs † and â€Å" context beliefs † higher, and â€Å" engagement in determination devising † lower than the males. For both learning experience and gender, the existent differences in the average tonss of the Dutch instructors are little ( 0:2 ) , so these background variables were non expected to hold a serious impact on the consequences of the survey. The Dutch study consisted of 60 points ( 54 of which were used in this survey ) rated on four-point graduated tables with five variables measured on a Likert graduated table ( disagree to hold ) and two variables ( engagement in determination devising and professional development activities ) utilizing the options â€Å" ne'er † , â€Å" sometimes † , â€Å" frequently † , and â€Å" ever † . The Canadian instrument contained 186 points ( 55 of which were used for this survey ) , rated on a five-point graduated table ( â€Å" strongly differ † to â€Å" strongly hold † ) with a â€Å" non applicable † response option, every bit good. Although each survey used its ain instrument, they both addressed the same three sets of variables: : transformational leading: vision edifice, individualised consideration, rational stimulation ; teacher committedness to alter: capacity beliefs, context beliefs ; excess attempt: engagement in determinatio n devising In the Dutch survey, the factorial cogency of the concepts was examined in a first-order confirmatory factor analysis ( CFA ) utilizing LISREL VIII ( maximal likeliness method ) . Based on the factorial construction ensuing from the CFA, graduated tables were constructed for each of the variables and dependability analyses indicated all graduated tables to be dependable. The Canadian survey conducted explorative factor analyses utilizing chief constituents extraction with varimax rotary motion to analyse eight sets of points selected from the larger survey based on their conceptual nexus to the variables in this survey. The research theoretical account depicts transformational leading dimensions straight act uponing instructors ‘ motivational procedures and instructors ‘ excess attempt. The LISREL attack ( LISREL VIII, maximal likeliness method ) ( JoA?reskog and SoA?rbom, 1999 ) was used to carry on structural equation mold ( SEM ) because it allows for proving the cogency of causal illations for braces of variables while commanding for the effects of other variables. Multiple fit indices are necessary for the rating of structural equation mold ( Bollen and Long, 1993 ) . The Chi-square trial is the traditional step used to prove the intimacy of tantrum between the ascertained covariance matrix and the theoretical account representation of the covariance matrix. In add-on to the Chi-square trial, three other indices are reported: the â€Å" root mean square mistake of estimate † ( RMSEA ) ; the â€Å" expected cross-validation index † ( ECVI ) ; and the comparative tantrum index ( CFI ) . The fit indices were used to set up the tantrum of the Dutch and the Canadian theoretical accounts individually because the Dutch and Canadian theoretical accounts serve independently collected informations sets that are non compatible. The findings show transformational leading dimensions affect both instructors ‘ committedness and excess attempt. The effects of the dimension ‘s vision edifice and rational stimulation look to be important in peculiar. Both the Dutch and the Canadian survey found the dimensions of transformational leading to hold modest effects on instructor committedness to reform. Of all dimensions, vision edifice and rational stimulation were reported to hold a important consequence on teacher committedness and excess attempt, unlike individualised consideration which was found to hold the weakest influence. The 4th article that is reviewed is a research by William L. Koh from Faculty of Business Administration, National University of Singapore and Richard M. Steers and James R. Terborg from Lundquist College of Business, University of Oregon, titled The effects of transformational leading on instructor attitudes and pupil public presentation in Singapore, taken from the Journal of Organisational Behaviour, volume 16, pages 319 to 333, ( 1995 ) . The intent of this survey is to analyze the influence of transformational leader behavior by school principals as it related to organisational committedness, organisational citizenship behavior, teacher satisfaction with leader, and pupil academic public presentation in Singapore. To steer the survey, four hypotheses were set Forth: transformational leading factors will hold important positive add-on effects to transactional leading factors in foretelling organisational citizenship behavior ; transformational leading factors will hold important positive add-on effects to transactional leading factors in foretelling low-level committedness to the school ; transformational leading factors will hold important positive add-on effects to transactional leading factors in foretelling satisfaction with the leader ; and transformational leading factors will hold important positive add-on effects to transactional leading factors in foretelling nonsubjective steps of pupil public presentation. A study was carried out in 100 indiscriminately selected secondary schools affecting 2000 instructors in Singapore. From the selected schools, instructors who had been at that place at least one calendar twelvemonth formed the sampling frame for the choice of instructors. Twenty instructors were indiscriminately selected from each school. To avoid common beginning discrepancy, evaluations of leading and result variables were obtained utilizing a split sample technique. Specifically, 10 instructors responded to questionnaires which measured satisfaction with the leader and organisational committedness, while the other 10 assessed the leading manners of the school principals. Attitudinal and behavioral informations were collected from both instructors and principals ; pupil academic public presentation was collected from school records. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5S ( MLQ ) developed by Bass ( 1985 ) was used to mensurate leading manner ; the Organizational citizenship behavior for instructors was operationalized and measured utilizing an instrument developed by Smith, Organ and Near ( 1983 ) ; the Organizational committedness was measured utilizing the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire ( OCQ ) , developed by Mowday, Porter and Steers ( 1982 ) . ; and teacher satisfaction with the principal was measured utilizing the leader subscale of the Index of Organizational Reactions ( IOR ) , developed by Smith ( 1976 ) . Pilot studies were conducted in four schools before the primary survey was initiated. Oblique factor analysis and Orthogonal rotary motion was performed on the MLQ points ; factor analysis, chief constituents analysis and oblique rotary motion was performed on the OCQ points ; while OCB and IOR went through factor analysis. School degree analyses showed that transformational leading had important add-on effects to transactional leading in the anticipation of organisational committedness, organisational citizenship behavior, and teacher satisfaction. Furthermore, transformational leading was found to hold indirect effects on pupil academic accomplishment. Finally, it was found that transactional leading had small add-on consequence on transformational leading in foretelling results. The 5th article that is reviewed is a research by Kenneth Leithwood and Doris Jantzi from Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada, titled Transformational school leading for large-scale reform: Effectss on pupils, instructors, and their schoolroom pattern taken from the School Effectiveness and School Improvement, volume 17, pages 201 to 227 ( 2006 ) . The intent of this paper is to describe on the effects of a school-specific theoretical account of transformational leading on instructors ( motive, capacities, and work scenes ) , their schoolroom patterns, and additions in pupil accomplishment. The theoretical model presented in this paper assumes that for large-scale reform to accomplish its ain ends, school staffs must be motivated to react to the reform in some locally meaningful and productive manner. Teachers ‘ motives, capacities, and work scenes have a direct consequence on their school and schoolroom patterns. These patterns are clearly intended to better pupil larning but may or may non make so depending on their effectivity. Transformational school leading patterns on the portion of †those in places of duty, † to utilize the linguistic communication in our steps, have both direct and indirect effects on instructors ‘ patterns, the indirect effects being realized through leaders ‘ influence on instructors ‘ motive, capacity, and work scenes. The instructor informations from a larger 4-year rating of England ‘s National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies were used for this survey. Two representative samples of 500 schools each were selected, one sample to supply grounds from instructors about National Literacy Strategies ( NLS ) and one to supply grounds about National Numeracy Strategies ( NNS ) . Both samples were selected at random from England ‘s National Foundation for Educational Research ( NFER ) database of schools to be representative of the whole of England ‘s primary school population in footings of school type, national course of study trial consequences, part, and proportion of students eligible for free school repasts. Independent schools were included in the sample, even though the NLS and NNS were non mandatory in these schools, since some of them were taking to implement all or portion of the schemes anyhow. Two signifiers of a Likert-type instructor study were developed to mensurate all concepts in the model except pupil accomplishment. One signifier focused on NLS and one on NNS. These instruments, field tested and refined over several phases, included a 5-point response graduated table for most inquiries ( 1 strongly disagree, 2 agree, 3 undecided, 4 agree, 5 strongly agree ) . The steps of pupil accomplishment were additions in Key Stage 2 consequences. Survey responses were analyzed at both single and school degrees. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) was used to cipher agencies, standard divergences, dependability coefficients, correlativity coefficients, and to aggregate single responses by school, as appropriate. Independent sample T trials were used to compare average evaluations of literacy respondents to those of numeracy respondents to find whether differences were statistically important. Paired samples t trials were used to compare average evaluations of specific constituents within a scheme that is reading and composing for literacy or mental mathematics and mathematical constructs for numeracy. LISREL was used to measure the direct and indirect effects of leading on motive, capacity, and state of affairs, every bit good as the effects of all these variables on altered instructor patterns. This way analytic technique allows for proving the cogency of causal illations for braces of variables while command ing for the effects of other variables. Datas were analyzed utilizing the LISREL 8 analysis of covariance construction attack to path analysis and maximal likeliness estimations ( JoA? reskog & A ; SoA?rbom, 1993 ) . Using way analytic techniques, the writers found that transformational leading had really strong direct effects on instructors ‘ work scenes and motives ; and important effects on instructors ‘ schoolroom patterns. Specifically, leading, along with instructor motive, capacity, and work scene explained about 25 % to 35 % in instructors ‘ schoolroom patterns. However, there were no important effects of leading on pupil accomplishment. The 6th article that is reviewed is a research by John A. Ross and Peter Gray, titled School Leadership and Student Achievement: The Mediating Effects of Teacher Beliefs taken from the Canadian Journal of Education volume 29, figure 3, pages 798 to 822 ( 2006 ) . The intent of this paper is to describe on a research on how principals contribute to student accomplishment indirectly through teacher committedness and beliefs about their corporate capacity. The theoretical model presented in this paper hypothesized a theoretical account associating leading to pupil accomplishment through instructor capacity edifice. The theoretical account predicts that transformational leading will act upon instructors ‘ professional committedness, defined here every bit committedness to organizational values which includes committedness to school mission, committedness to professional, and committedness to community-school partnerships. A study was carried out in 205 schools affecting 3042 simple instructors from two Ontario territories. All points in the study were taken from old surveies and rated on six-point graduated tables measured on a Likert-scale ranging from strongly differ to strongly hold. Transformational leading consisted of 12 points mensurating instructor perceptual experiences that their chief leads by developing the capacity of the organisation and its members to accommodate to the demands of a altering environment. Collective instructor efficaciousness consisted of 14 points developed by Goddard et Al. ( 2000 ) . Teacher committedness to organisational values consisted of three variables: Committedness to school mission consisted of 12 points that measured instructors ‘ credence of school ends, their belief that these ends were shared by the staff, and their committedness to reexamining school ends on a regular basis ; Commitment to the school as a professional community consisted of 5 point s stand foring instructors ‘ committedness to sharing learning thoughts with each other ; and Commitment to school-community partnerships consisted of 4 points mensurating teacher committedness to including parents in puting school waies. The adequateness of the committedness variables was tested with collateral factor analysis. The theoretical account was tested utilizing way analysis. The natural informations were input to SPSS and the variance-covariance matrix was analysed utilizing the maximal likeliness method of AMOS 4.0. To guard against capitalising on opportunity, cross-validation scheme was used by indiscriminately delegating schools within territories to make two groups. The first group was used as the geographic expedition sample to prove and polish the theoretical account ; the 2nd sample was the proof sample in which we replicated the analysis without farther theoretical account alteration. The Chi-square trial is the traditional step used to prove the intimacy of tantrum between the ascertained covariance matrix and the theoretical account representation of the covariance matrix. In add-on to the Chi-square trial, two other indices are reported: the Adjusted Goodness of Fit ( AGFI ) ; and the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation ( RMSEA ) . In this survey, the writers found no statistically important direct consequence of leading on accomplishment, as expected from old research. At the same clip, schools with higher degrees of transformational leading had higher corporate instructor efficaciousness, greater teacher committedness to school mission, school community, and school-community partnerships, and higher pupil accomplishment. Therefore, the consequences suggest that the principals who adopt transformational leading manner have a positive impact on instructor beliefs in corporate capacity and committedness to organisational values. Increasing the transformational leading patterns in schools makes a little but practically of import part to overall pupil accomplishment. The 7th article that is reviewed is a research by John A. Ross and Peter Gray from Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canada, titled Transformational leading and instructor committedness to organisational values: The interceding effects of corporate instructor efficaciousness taken from the School Effectiveness and School Improvement, volume 17, figure 2, pages 179 to 199 ( 2006 ) . The intent of this survey is to analyze the mediating effects of instructor efficaciousness by comparing two theoretical accounts derived from Bandura ‘s societal cognitive theory. Model A hypothesized that transformational leading would lend to teacher committedness to organisational values entirely through corporate instructor efficaciousness. Model B hypothesized that leading would hold direct effects on instructor committedness and indirect effects through instructor efficaciousness. A study was carried out in 218 schools affecting 3072 simple instructors from two Ontario territories. The instrument used in this survey is precisely the same as the instruments used in the 6th article, where the points are rated on six-point graduated tables measured on a Likert-scale ranging from strongly differ to strongly hold. The two theoretical accounts were tested utilizing structural equation mold. The natural informations were input to Statistical Package for the Social Sciences ( SPSS ) and the variance-covariance matrix was analyzed utilizing the maximal likeliness method of AMOS 4.0. To guard against capitalising on opportunity, cross-validation scheme was used by indiscriminately delegating schools within territories to make two groups. The first group was used as the standardization sample to prove and polish the theoretical account, and the 2nd group as the reproduction sample, proving the tantrum of the theoretical accounts without alteration. Model A and Model B was examined for each the fit indices and the way coefficients to find which provided a better tantrum of the information. In proving the theoretical accounts, they were guided by their theory and informed by the AMOS alteration indexes. To prove the intimacy of tantrum between the ascertained covariance matrix and the theoretical account representation of the covariance matrix, qi square, AGFI and RMSEA was used. Datas from the survey provided greater support for Model B than Model A. collective instructor efficaciousness is a partial instead than a complete go-between of the effects of transmutation leading on instructor committedness to organisational values. Transformational leading had an impact on the corporate instructor efficaciousness of the school ; teacher efficaciousness entirely predicted teacher committedness to community partnerships ; and transformational leading had direct and indirect effects on instructor committedness to school mission and committedness to professional acquisition community. The 8th and concluding article that is reviewed here is a research by Huen Yu from Hong Kong Institute of Education and Kenneth Leithwood and Doris Jantzi from Centre for Leadership Development, OISE/University of Toronto, Canada, titled The effects of transformational leading on instructors ‘ committedness to alter in Hong Kong, taken from the Journal of Educational Administration, volume 40, figure 4, pages 368 to 384 ( 2002 ) . The intent of this paper is to describe on a research on the effects of principals ‘ transformational leading patterns on instructors ‘ committedness to alter in Hong Kong primary schools. The theoretical model presented in this paper is an version of the model used by Leithwood et Al. ( 1993 ) . The writer acknowledge that the relationship between transformational school leading and committedness may be both direct and indirect ; and that alterable variables other than leading potentially intercede the effects of school leading and have their ain direct effects on instructor committedness every bit good. A study was carried out in 107 schools affecting 3125 primary instructors from Hong Kong. The instrument consisted of 113 points study and rated on four to six point graduated tables measured on a Likert-scale ranging from strongly differ to strongly hold. The study was translated from English into Chinese utilizing the â€Å" back interlingual rendition † method to guarantee the quality of the Chinese version ; it was besides pilot tested for farther polish by holding local simple school instructors to finish the questionnaire separately. SPSSX was used to cipher agencies, standard divergences, per centums and correlativity coefficients. The dependabilities of the graduated tables mensurating all variables in the model were besides calculated. All relationships among variables were examined utilizing simple Pearson merchandise correlativities and additive arrested development analysis. This survey shows that transformational leading impacts employee committedness to organisational alteration. Effectss of transformational leading on instructors ‘ committedness to alter operated likewise in both North America and Hong Kong, but the magnitude of the effects was far less in Hong Kong. All the eight research undertakings reviewed in this paper was conducted in many different school systems based on quantitative method attack. The survey by Barnett ( 2003 ) , Geijsel et Al ( 2003 ) , Ross and Gray ( 2006b ) and Yu, Leithwood, and Jantzi ( 2002 ) were concerned with the principals ‘ transformational behavior towards instructors ‘ public presentation merely, while the survey by Barnett, McCormick, and Conners ( 2001 ) , Ross and Gray ( 2006a ) , Leithwood and Jantzi ( 2006 ) , and Koh, Steers, and Terborg ( 1995 ) , were concerned with the principals ‘ transformational behavior towards instructors ‘ public presentation and pupils ‘ academic accomplishments. The available research on the effects of transformational leading suggests that it is more likely to hold a direct impact on organizational procedures associated with employee patterns, motive and satisfaction, which in bend are linked to the quality of the service offered and the public presentation of the administration. In Ross and Gray ( 2006a ) , Leithwood and Jantzi ( 2006 ) , and Koh, Steers, and Terborg ( 1995 ) surveies, positive indirect effects on pupil results have been identified. Barnett, McCormick, and Conners ( 2001 ) survey nevertheless, reports a important negative association between transformational leading behavior and pupil results. In Australia, Barnett, McCormick and Conners ( 2001 ) reported that while transformational leading was positively linked to teacher results such as satisfaction and excess attempt, it was negatively associated with pupil larning civilization. An extra issue concerns some of the findings of research on transformational leading. Based on their findings in Australia, Barnett et Al. ( 2001 ) argue that, contrary to the premise of Bass and Avolio ( 1997 ) , no conceptual differences can be identified between transformational leading behavior. In their survey, instructors did non pull a differentiation between the transformational leading behavior of personal appeal, rational stimulation and inspirational motive. Furthermore, they found that the instructors in their survey did non separate between single concern ( transformational leading behavior ) and contingent wages ( transactional leading behavior ) . They considered this to be an indicant that â€Å" transformational and transactional leading patterns are interlacing and that transformational leading is effectual when it manages to integrate transactional patterns † ( Barnett et al. , 2001, p. 42 ) . Their most of import determination concerned the fact that the transformational leading behavior of vision/inspiration was negatively associated with pupil larning civilization. Barnett et Al. ( 2001 ) suggested that visionary/inspirational principals may direct instructors ‘ attempts to wider school enterprises, thereby deflecting them from their instruction and learning ends. If right, this reading has negative deductions for the transformational leading theoretical account in relation to its presumed effects on pupil results . Yu, Leithwood, and Jantzi ( 2002 ) conducted a functional cosmopolitan perspective research on a group of principals in Hong Kong and found that effects of transformational leading on instructors ‘ committedness to alter operated is likewise in both North America and Hong Kong, but the magnitude of the effects was far less in Hong Kong. This consequence leads to theorize that the nature of transformational leading influence on instructor ‘s committedness to alter is really similar across cultural context. This work reinforces the findings of a survey by Koh, Steers, and Terborg ( 1995 ) which was besides a survey based on a research done in America. From a cross-cultural position, ascertained differences in the factor burdens between the present survey and past research indicates that there could be cultural differences, although the magnitude of such differences were non big. The survey by Yu, Leithwood, and Jantzi, ( 2002 ) has indicated that there is a weak but important consequence of transformational leading on instructors ‘ committedness to alter and reform. This work reinforces the findings of a survey by Geijsel et Al. ( 2003 ) which demonstrated an consequence of transformational leading on instructors ‘ committedness to school reform. The two random samples drawn for Ross and Gray ( 2006a ) analysis were non the same random samples used in Ross and Gray ( 2006b ) to look into a similar set of research inquiries affecting the relationships among leading and school procedures. Ross and Gray ( 2006b ) survey did non include student accomplishment or SES informations. Consequences of Ross and Gray ( 2006b ) survey are considered of import by the research workers because this peculiar survey non merely identified a important relationship of transformational leading to committedness and organisational values, but it besides identified the mechanism ( corporate instructor efficaciousness ) ; whereby these influences occurred. These researches assert that transformational leading influences instructors ‘ professional committedness to school ‘s vision, professional community, school norms of collegiality, coaction, joint work and besides a committedness to community partnerships. Teachers who are more committed to organisational values and its members are more likely to follow instructional patterns encouraged by the organisation, assist co-workers, and work harder to accomplish organisational ends, lending to higher degrees of pupil accomplishments if the school ends are focused on academic accomplishments. These research findings are good and can be implemented in school towards constructing a balanced school civilization and bring forthing high-achieving and wholesome human capital. Principals with transformational leading behaviors have a positive impact on instructor beliefs in corporate capacity and committedness to organisational values, and this mediates towards pupils ‘ classs. Principals with transformational leading behaviors would be able to make a extremely positive school clime which in return creates a better instruction and acquisition environment. Principals should overtly act upon teacher readings of school and schoolroom accomplishment informations. Teachers need to acknowledge which of their accomplishments contribute to student accomplishment, that they control the acquisition and exercising these accomplishments, and that they need to take duty for the successes and failures of their pupils. Principals besides should assist instructors put executable, proximal ends to increase the likeliness of command experiences. Principals need to supply instructors with entree to high quality professional development and supply constructive feedback on their skill acquisition, for efficaciousness beliefs are most powerful when they are grounded in accurate self-appraisal. A huge mention was given in all the articles in bibliography signifier. All of the articles referred to Bass ( 1985 ) and Burns ( 1975 ) to construct up their research and as for support and rebuttal in the issues in their several research. Bandura ( 1986 ) was besides conspicuously used in the edifice of the models in these articles. All the mentions used in the articles are current and relevant to their several researches which in return supports and made the articles dependable to be used in future surveies. In decision, principals ‘ transformational leading behaviors have a direct impact towards their subsidiaries ‘ or instructors ‘ attitude and public presentation, and an indirect impact on pupils ‘ classs which is mediated by the instructors ‘ attitude and schoolroom steps. The reappraisal of the literature clearly points to the demand for more surveies of the effects of transformational leading on pupil results. For, without more grounds on their effects on acquisition, transformational leading run the hazard of staying intuitive conceptualizations of leading, with limited or no impact on educational policy and pattern.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

_x000C_Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis

Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis This page intentionally left blank Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis Third Edition Roxy Peck California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Chris Olsen George Washington High School, Cedar Rapids, IA Jay Devore California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo Australia †¢ Brazil †¢ Canada †¢ Mexico †¢ Singapore †¢ Spain †¢ United Kingdom †¢ United States Introduction to Statistics and Data Analysis, Third Edition Roxy Peck, Chris Olsen, Jay Devore Acquisitions Editor: Carolyn Crockett Development Editor: Danielle Derbenti Assistant Editor: Beth Gershman Editorial Assistant: Ashley Summers Technology Project Manager: Colin Blake Marketing†¦show more content†¦in statistics at Stanford University. He previously taught at the University of Florida and at Oberlin College and has had visiting appointments at Stanford, Harvard, the University of Washington, and New York University. From 1998 to 2006, Jay served as Chair of the Statistics Department at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. The Statistics Department at Cal Poly has an international reputation for activities in statistics education. In addition to this book, Jay has written several widely used engineering statistics texts and is currently working on a book in applied mathematical statistics. He is the recipient of a distinguished teaching award from Cal Poly and is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. In his spare time, he enjo ys reading, cooking and eating good food, tennis, and travel to faraway places. He is especially proud of his wife, Carol, a retired elementary school teacher, his daughter Allison, who works for the Center for Women and Excellence in Boston, and his daughter Teri, who is ï ¬ nishing a graduate program in education at NYU. ROXY PECK is Associate Dean of the College of Science and Mathematics and Professor of Statistics at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo. Roxy has been on the faculty at Cal Poly since 1979, serving for six years as Chair of the Statistics Department before becoming Associate Dean. She received an M.S. in Mathematics and a Ph.D. in Applied Statistics from the

Monday, December 23, 2019

History SBA Guidelines - 2091 Words

GRAYDON SEALY SECONDARY SCHOOL GENERAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT HISTORY Guidelines for the Completion of Caribbean History SBA ⠝â€" Please note that the guidelines that follow are to assist youÍ ¾ therefore, they should be followed. However, if you are unclear about anything pertaining to what you have to do, it is your responsibility to seek the necessary assistance from your subject teacher. CXC Caribbean History Examination Outline The CXC History Paper consists of three parts: 1. Paper 1 ­ Multiple Choice (Questions will be chosen from the Core) 2. Paper 2 – Essay Type Questions (2 Questions will be set on the NINE themes. You are required to ANSWER THREE QUESTIONS, ONE FROM THE THREE THEMES†¦show more content†¦Unknown (2003) stated that sugar could only be profitable if grown on a large scale. E.g. Slater (n.d.) highlighted the increase in the black population as being the result of the large importation of enslaved Africans to meet the labour demands on the sugar plantations. Using a Bibliography When doing research, you must also cite the sources that you used in a bibliography. All sources must be listed in alphabetical order. ⠝â€" Citing Books in a Bibliography ­ Author/s. year of publication. Title of source. Place of publication: Name of publishers. Eg .  ­ Claypole, W., Robottom, John. Caribbean Story (New Edition), England: Longman Caribbean 1981 Citing Online Sources in a Bibliography ­ Contributors names (Last edited date). Title of resource. Retrieved from (place web address here) Eg.  ­ Brizee, A. (2010, May 5).The Appearance of the Arawaks. Retrieved from CARIBBEAN EXAMINATION COUNCIL CARIBBEAN HISTORY SCHOOL BASED ASSESMENT 2014 Name: Emmanuel Sighn Candidate #: 03001210111 School code: 030012 Topic: What was the impact of the sugar revolution on the social, economic and political th landscape of the British West Indies in the latter half of the 17 century? SBA TOPIC 1. Show how the sugar revolution impacted the social, economic and political landscape of the British th West Indian (BWI)Show MoreRelatedCensorship As A Multi Million Dollar Market942 Words   |  4 Pagescontrols the media, controls the mind. With the power to dictate what information an individual is allowed and not allowed to access, comes also the power to mould a society to whatever belief system that is desired. Advertising which has a rich history that can be traced back to early cave paintings, is a medium for persuasion and is often used by businesses and organisations to promote their products and ideas. Advertising being a multi-million dollar market for promoting a wide array of ideasRead MoreBenefits Of A Green Company Essay1935 Words   |  8 Pagesalthough businesses are going â€Å"green† they may or may not be making a positive impact on the environment or that the company will be as successful or more successful than other companies who are not considere d green. 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This tactic will be a building block that will provide insight on the company’s capabilities, and also prevent decisions from entering a market that can possibly decline accordingRead MoreIzmir, Turkey - the Pearl of the Aegean4857 Words   |  20 Pagesanother, from the north towards the south. The Anatolian plate, where the Turkish mainland lies, is being clutched upwardly near the Aegean Sea (Kutluca A. K., 2004). Both plates are located directly below Turkey and thus lead to this country’s massi ve history of avalanches, floods, landslides, droughts and earthquakes (Orhon, 1991). A 7.2 Mw earthquake had once again struck Turkey, this time along the Iranian border on October 23, 2011. Much damage had occurred as was expected with any quake above 7

Sunday, December 15, 2019

Boycotts, Sanctions and Embargoes Free Essays

string(205) " rule to bear as embargoes such as expulsion from world sporting events and the calls for boycotts of the consumer goods meant that South Africa was slowly drifting away from the international community \." Boycotts, sanctions and embargoes have been used for a very long time by the government to maintain social order. Although their use is characterized by lack of democracy, autocratic leaderships as well as dictatorial leaderships, the three terms have come to be recognized as international tools of dealing with rogue nations especially when such are applied by the international community through world recognized bodies such as the UN. While boycotts refer to the act of desisting from using a certain product of engaging in relationship with a given organization or individual it may also be applied to individuals such as presidents and political leaders as a means of coercing such to comply with the given code of conduct . We will write a custom essay sample on Boycotts, Sanctions and Embargoes or any similar topic only for you Order Now Boycotts, sanctions and embargoes as applied to South Africa during the apartheid era were used as tools of suppressing the apartheid rule to recognize the rights of the blacks in South Africa. Boycotts, sanctions and embargoes are only effective if there is international solidarity on the dimension on which they can be applied. For such tools can never be effective if applied in small proportions. Beginning in the late 1960s throughout to the early 1990s the international community put pressure on the apartheid rule in South Africa to recognize the rights of the blacks in South Africa. The successive handover of independence to South Africans can be partly attributed to the effectiveness of the boycotts, sanctions and embargoes. The history of boycotts, sanctions and embargoes can be traced back to the 1700s with colonial boycotts of British trade goods during the colonization of America by the Britains . In the 1800 boycotts were evident and were successfully used as a tool to fight slave trade when different nations such as France, the Balkans and the Americas called for their population to boycott and resist from buying goods or products originating from slave fields . This led to the colonial masters to understand the dissent and dislike of slave trade as a practice. This amongst other factors can be used to explain the eventual abolishment of slave trade in late 18th century. Boycotts were used by the anti-apartheid movement in two folds, either as a threat or an actual action aimed at eliciting the desired reaction from the apartheid rule to hasten the hand over of independence to South Africa . The pervasive nature of the boycotts made the boycotts to be viewed by the apartheid movement as one of the effective tools in that whenever boycotts were called either from the international community or by the south Africans themselves it would deal a big blow to the smooth functioning of the apartheid government. This was the desired effect on the government given the ability of boycotts to disrupt the normal functioning of government. For instance, the South African apartheid government depended on exports of products such as gold, diamond and uranium and therefore successful boycotts meant that the apartheid government would be denied the much-needed income to carry on its governance issues . Boycotts were so effective in South Africa such that they are classified as one of the greatest factors which led to the fall of the apartheid regime considering the fact that South Africa relied on export of its goods to earn foreign exchange. The anti-apartheid in South Africa played a critical role in ensuring that the boycotts received international recognition hence the reason why much of the campaigning was directed towards achieving official state sponsored international support. International anti-apartheid movement as it applied to South Africa was founded on tenets such as the belief in the right of every human being to fundamental right to freedom, self-rule, the right to every state to be independent, the right to recognition and upholding of every people’s culture and beliefs as well as the social and moral responsibility of the international community to fight apartheid irrespective of who practices it or who perpetrates it. The above tenets formed the basis for the international anti-apartheid movement and were consequential in the subsequent defeat of apartheid in South Africa. International solidarity is manifested in the ability of nations of the world to join together and advocate for a common goal . In regard to an apartheid movement in South Africa solidarity was demonstrated in sanctions and embargoes enforced by the international community to fight apartheid. In that sense the international community shows the intention to decapitate the legal framework with apartheid rule upholds as a means of sustaining the economic dominance over people. In the case of South Africa the Boers segregated Africa by making sure that the quality of education they received was insufficient to guarantee them good position in the labour market . This greatly relegated the natives to abject poverty in that they were economically not a match to the Boers. Apart from denial of access to education, the native South Africans were denied equal opportunities even in situations whereby they possessed equal qualifications to those of the whites. In addition, the apartheid rule dictated where the Africans could own property as well as what kind of trade they could conduct. This meant that economically, the Africans were at a disadvantage. At the policy level all policies were biased against the Africans and this meant that it was very hard for them to achieve the economic independence required to wage any meaningful ‘war’ against the mighty white rule. This shows how the Africans were incapable of successfully fighting apartheid on their own. Without international solidarity as demonstrated in the international apartheid movement the native South Africans would not have achieved independence. Where the Africans lacked the economic power to fight apartheid, the international community showed solidarity by enforcing sanctions, which would greatly reduce the white’s economic prowess . Pressure from the international community led to the call of boycotts and expulsion of South Africa from participating in the international sporting events . This was too much for the apartheid rule to bear as embargoes such as expulsion from world sporting events and the calls for boycotts of the consumer goods meant that South Africa was slowly drifting away from the international community . You read "Boycotts, Sanctions and Embargoes" in category "Papers" Even before the official handover of independence to the South Africans the impact of the international community intervention was evident and by 1985 the apartheid rule started doing away with some apartheid practices such as forced ejections from homes, classification based on colour, as well as the denial of equal opportunities . As the internal resistance waged by the South Africans through their umbrella party ANC sufficed international relations worsened as the sanctions, embargoes and boycotts were unbearable to the apartheid rule. The support from the international community accorded to the native South Africans acted as a morale booster and as a result the native South Africans took the fight against apartheid a note higher as all social groups took to the fight. As a result of international solidarity in calling of the eradication of apartheid in south Africa, the natives regained confidence and the fight against apartheid changed tactics from confrontational needs to more subtle means such as freedom songs, as well as the use of black owned media to produce films which called for the end to apartheid . In the contemporary society international solidarity contributes largely to political struggle. This takes other forms other than embargoes, boycotts and sanctions for instance, international recognition of democratically elected governments. For example, in the present day Somalia, it is the leadership, which gains international support, which enjoys credence and credibility. For instance, the Islam court government could not successfully lead in Somalia because it lacked the support of the international community. International solidarity calling for the recognition of the democratically elected leadership lead to the ousting of the Islam courts’ led government barely six months after it had seized power from yet another leadership; the tribal led government. The case of Somalia clearly shows that international solidarity can play a role in winning struggles not only the struggle against apartheid but also other struggles against terrorism, colonialism as well as dictatorial regimes. However, there is a need for caution in how the international community plays its role when it comes to intervention in conflict situations. There is evidence that most international actions are informed by the leadership of specific groups as opposed to being informed by the need for impartiality, fairness and the observation of international law. The moment international community degenerates into a tool for certain groups in the struggle, the effectiveness of the international community to fight against oppression of a given people whether in apartheid, colonial or occupation. The international community should base their support on any given group on merit but not other factors such as on the basis of friendship with the leadership of a given struggle movement. The international community has in the past made grave mistakes by supporting struggle leaders who later turned out to be no better than the oppressive powers. This can be clearly demonstrated in the case of leaders who have taken over from dictatorial regimes with the full support of the community only to turn out to be worse than the ousted regimes. For the official leadership of any struggle to receive international support, it must clearly demonstrate its ability to end aggression once it takes power. Such official leadership must have put in place proper mechanism to deal with issues of poor governance, which often lead to difficulties in leadership once such a struggle movement, takes power. It is therefore paramount that the international community serves the role of a mediator rather than actively being involved in the political activities in any given struggle. Sanctions, boycotts and arms embargoes have been criticized for going in contravention of freedom and autonomy of states especially in cases whereby the sanctions, boycotts and embargoes are imposed on independent sates for reasons ranging from; failure to honor some demands by donors which may not be in the best interest of such nations or in other cases where embargoes, sanctions and boycotts are solely motivated by the need to exert influence over a regime which has fallen out of touch with the wishes of western powers. For instance, the world is currently witnessing a situation whereby there is a tendency by the United States of America to endorse boycotts and sanctions to nations which fail to support it or collaborate with it on fronts such as the war against terrorism. This leads to questions on how appropriate it is for the United States of America and other developed Nations to dictate to independent nations on how they can handle their internal affairs. For example, the sanctions imposed on Iran solely on grounds that, the country is developing weapons of mass destruction are a clear indication of how sanctions, boycotts and embargoes can be imposed at will by the powerful nations to the detriment of militarily and economically weaker nations. This has been a cause of tensions in the Middle East region and it threatens to get worse and spill into an international conflict. Embargoes lead to the suffering of citizens whose country is brought under sanctions. In addition, embargoes, sanctions and boycotts increase vulnerability for such a country to face external attacks if arms embargoes are imposed. The above clearly demonstrate that, in as much as sanctions, embargoes and boycotts are useful in containing the capacity of dictatorial regimes, apartheid regimes and rebel movements, if not well regulated, they can lead to atrocities against the people they are meant to protect or liberate. Where sanctions, embargoes and boycotts are imposed haphazardly, citizens suffer. In addition, the countries under arms embargoes become more vulnerable to attacks. In addition sanctions, arms embargoes, and boycotts can lead to heightened regional and international relations characterized by tensions. There is a need to de-emphasize the use of sanctions and embargoes and concentrate on other methods of intervention in times of crisis. While sanctions, embargoes and boycotts can create an opportunity for abuse of human rights, abuse of independence of states and unnecessary interference in the running of internal affairs of independent countries, other alternatives such as negotiations can work marvelously and cause less undesired effects. In addition, an alternative such as diplomacy is les expensive to implement in the long run. Diplomacy is usually given a wide support by nations of the world compared to sanctions, boycotts and embargoes. For instance, although there are sanctions in place against the current regime in Zimbabwe specifically targeting the leadership of President Robert Mugambe, not every nation in the world supports the measure as some countries like China have gone ahead with healthy trade ties with Robert Mugambe. This clearly indicates that, sanctions are not always ideal and must only be applied selectively as opposed to being applied blatantly. In conclusion, it is clear from the discussion above that international intervention in form of enforcing boycotts, sanctions and embargoes against the apartheid rule in South Africa was effective in the fight and eventual defeat of apartheid. The international campaign, which saw South Africa being banned from participating in international sporting events as well as the calls for boycotts of South African products, was greatly successful as a tool to fighting apartheid. At the center of the struggle against apartheid was the apartheid movement, which coordinated the anti-apartheid struggle and advocated for the imposition of embargo, sanctions and boycotts. The case of apartheid struggle is a clear demonstration of the power of international solidarity in relation to the politics of a particular struggle and how international solidarity can greatly influence the outcome of the given struggle. Reference Lodge, T. 1983. Black Politics in South Africa since 1945. Johannesburg; Ravan Press. Mandela, N. 1994. Long Walk to Freedom. Abacus. Meli, F. 1988. South Africa Belongs to Us: A History of the ANC. London. James Currey. Robert, Innes 2006. A Theory of Consumer Boycotts and a Symmetric Information and Imperfect Competition. Economic Journal. Robert, Innes 2006. A Theory of Consumer Boycotts and a Symmetric Information and Imperfect Competition. Economic Journal. Seagal, R. ed. 1964. Sanctions Against South Africa. Penguin. How to cite Boycotts, Sanctions and Embargoes, Papers

Saturday, December 7, 2019

HIH Insurance Limited Inherent Risk Assessments

Question: Discuss about the HIH Insurance Limited for Inherent Risk Assessments. Answer: Business Risk and Inherent Risk Assessments How HIH business risk would be assessed Each organization comprises of numerous different risk components while conducting its day-to-day operations. Therefore, in this case, risks within HIH has not been evaluated and recognized properly by its management; hence, resulting to a net loss of around 5.3 billion and then to collapse of the company. With these considerations, HIH business risk could be assessed in terms of the local, global as well as it control environment. This could also be assessed by understanding the overall insurance sector and then understanding how the HIH fits in this sector. To be more specific, HIH business risk would be assess through operational and financial risks. To start with, financial risk linked with those risks arising from HIH financial operations, financial consequences and transaction of its operations should in this case be assess (Clarke, Dean and Oliver, 2003). Therefore, by assessing all these risks, it would assist HIH to be aware and relatively alert with its financial position, issues as well as it debt. This would have in turn assisted it in evading risk of having too much debt obligations as compared to its total return. On the other hand, in assessing HIH risks, it would be advisable to assess its operational risks. These are the risks arising from its internal activities or operations. In this case, it would be advisable to assess several classes of risk like legal risk, fraud, environment as well as physical risk of this organization. This would have assisted in detecting probable issues and errors resulting from such risks. Thus, by assessing operational risks of HIH; that is, how it operates as well as how it conducts it s normal procedures, it could be easier for the firm to detect probable issues and errors; hence, the firm could have improved and expanded (The HIH Royal Commission 2003). In conclusion, it is very significant for the risks to be assessed, managed and recognized properly such that controls are executed in order to evade and reduce probable risks that might arise. In fact, HIH could not have collapsed in case it risks were assessed and managed appropriately and on time. Thus, business risk of the HIH were extensive as it risks were not identified and managed properly. Inherent Risk Aspects Effecting HIH Auditors should determine risks while working with their clients. One of the most important risks that they should be alert about should be inherent risk. One of the main aspects that could influence or affect inherent risk is management level of integrity. Given that HIH management lack integrity by presenting erroneous financial report, there is a probability for reputation to the business community. Another factor affecting inherent risk in HIH are unusual pressure on it management (Von Wielligh 2004). Basically, there were some incentives that led the management to misstate HIH financial report which include poor operating results, cash inflow problems, as well as poor liquidity. Change in competitive and economic condition in Australia was also another factor affecting inherent risk in the HIH at financial reporting level. These factors resulted in some increase in inherent risks assessment of the company. The Likelihood Being Liable Clients The partnership might be held liable to client if there is evidence that shows insufficient planning relating to goodwill alongside with deferred acquisition costs as well as income tax benefits. In case the clients were hiring former auditors, this would have some influence on independence of the external auditor since the former auditor could be holding higher partnership on auditing team which could hold higher influence to current auditors as a result of their authority. In fact there is a close relationship between existing and former auditors since they are capable of handling issues with the partners and influence they hold. Creditors For the creditors, the partnership could be held liable to the creditors in this case since it is clear that creditors incurred loss as a result of the partnership performance. In essence, the partnership is liable to the creditors since there is prove that they breached due of due professional care due to approval of misleading financial report which included audit report. Basically, as per the facts and finding in Credit Alliance Corp. v. Arthur Andersen Co. (1985) case, the partnership was fully aware of the reliance on financial statements of the organization by creditors. Therefore, they are fully liable for negligence to creditors. Conditions for the negligence action to be upheld Negligence is the cause of action where the plaintiff might assert civil tort against the defendant. For a negligence case to be upheld the plaintiff should definitely prove following conditions; first, s/he should prove that there was some duties on part of the defendant in conforming to a specific standard of conduct. Secondly, the plaintiff should prove that s/he has suffered some damages (Kimmel et al. 2006). Hence, even if the plaintiff proves that the defendant acted negligently, s/he might not collect the damages in case there was no evidence that s/he suffered any injuries. For a negligence to be upheld there should be prove that the defendant breached his or her duty that s/he owes to a plaintiff. The defendant might breach such duty through failure to exercise some reasonable care to fulfil his duty. Ethics Main Reason Why Hih Would Hire Previous Members Of An External Audit Team HIH would be willing to hire the previous participants of an external audit team since these members are relatively conversant with it; hence, would be easier for these members to carry out their audit of HIH financial statements. Furthermore, HIH might be willing to hire previous members of the audit teams since these members have some experience with several of the financial matters; hence, would take them lesser time to understand the financial statements as compared to new members. In essence, since these members could have been auditing the firm financial statement for some time, they understand clearly how the firm works as well as what could be done in order to improve its internal audit department. Furthermore, the firm could hire of the previous members of the external audit team since the teams could provide it with some insight of what the auditors are looking for and in case the personnel wanted to commit some frauds or erroneous act they could gain some insight and learn how better how to high such activities (Moroney, Campell and Hamilton 2011). Generally, this firm could be interested in hiring previous external auditor due to their know-how. For example in case the audit member has worked on specific engagement in HIH for numerous years, this member might understand more regarding operations of audited firm as compared to anyone else. In this case, there might be no other reason or agenda. Nonetheless, in case it consistently hires from its external audit teams, it would be unclear about the overall integrity of the company (Tahir, Idris and Ariffin 2014). Advantages Of Having Same Organization Offering Both Consulting And Auditing Services Hiring of the same organization providing both consulting and auditing services could be advantageous. This is because a higher level of effectiveness would be gained by same organization offering both services since the company could leverage auditors deep understanding of it customer and it information system in offering extra or additional services. In addition, having same organization offering both consulting and auditing services could assist the company establish weaknesses during audit work and same could assist in closing this view (Tahir, Idris and Ariffin 2014). Evaluation OfWhether These Circumstances Would Result In Violation Of Ethical Standards Hiring the same organization to provide both consulting and auditing services would result to violation of the ethical standards. This is based on the fact that the act could impair independence of the company in conducting their auditing work (Clout, Chapple and Gandhi 2013). Furthermore, such circumstance would represent violation of auditing ethical standards since it would impair the firms objectivity. This would in turn influence the companys auditing opinion; hence, their auditing responsibility might be compromised. Generally, this circumstance could represent violation of ethical standard since the firm could ignore observation made during their auditing work and could fail to conform to their audit opinion since the firm is still offering consulting services which could in turn be a better proof of the firms weakness in its consulting services. Recommendations The main recommendations in this case is enrichment of independence. The second recommendation was strengthening of the financial reporting framework (Barret 2003). This is aimed at promotion of vibrant and strong economy as well as provision of a framework which assist business easily adapts to change. Furthermore, there was recommendation to enhance continuous disclosure provisions which apply to the listed firms. There is also recommendation to look for some civil consequences in case of contraventions of constant revelation by disclosing or auditing firms (Kleinman and Palmon 2001). Basically, there is a recommendation that CFO of an organization signs statutory declaration that an organizations financial information are materially complete and faithful and that they comply with relevant acts. CLERP 9 and Ramsay Report also recommended that auditors should report to the ASIC any endeavour to coerce, mislead, influence or manipulate the auditors (Ladakis 2005). Another important r ecommendation for the auditors is to ensure that their duties are provided in a manner that ensures that financial services are provided honestly, fairly and efficiently. The CLERP 9 recommends that audit work is conducted competently and professionally, with full regard provided to shareholders interests, independence needs as well as professional ethics. The act also recommends regular rotation of the audit partners (Islam, Karim and van Zijl 2005). Furthermore, there is a recommendation for introduction of some statutory cap on the professional liability where auditors are put liable for exercising their duties unethically. These recommendations would have significant impact on practice of auditing since it would help in amending the annual audit report for the listed firms to reveal respecting auditing requirements. In addition, such recommendation enhances substantial improvement in the auditing practice in that they would enhance consistency of the financial reports (Clout, Chapple and Gandhi 2013). For instance, the recommendation to seek civil penalties would make auditing firms more careful while auditing the financial statements; hence, reduced probability of presenting misleading reports or information in regard to an organizations financial performance. Further, such recommendations would help in improving on auditing independence; hence, an improvement on auditing services or works (Chapple and Koh 2007). For instance, regular rotation of the audit partners would enhance independence of the auditing firm since there would be no continuity of knowledge. These recommendations would also improve on auditing work in that there would be reduced case of unethical practices during auditing. References Barret, P 2003, Governance and Auditing in a Changing Environment in the Public Sector, Speech Charted Secretaries Australia, 4. Chapple, LJ and Koh, B 2007, Regulatory responses to auditor independence dilemmaswho takes the stronger line?, Australian Journal of Corporate Law, 21(1), 1-21. Clarke F, Dean G and Oliver K 2003, Corporate Collapse: Accounting, Regulatory and Ethical Failure, Revised Edition, Cambridge University Press. Clout, J, Chapple, L and Gandhi, N 2013, The impact of auditor independence regulations on established and emerging firms, Accounting Research Journal, 26(2), 88-108. Islam, A, Karim, AK and van Zijl, T 2005, Auditor independence and NAS: A comparative analysis of selected current regulatory frameworks. Kimmel, PD, Carlon, S, Loftus, J, Mladenovic, R, Kieso, DE and Weygandt, JJ 2006, Accounting Buidling Business Skills 2nd edition. Milton: John Wiley Sons Australia, Ltd. Kleinman, G and Palmon, D 2001, Understanding Auditor-client Relations: a multi faceted analysis, Wiener, Princeton. Ladakis, E 2005, The auditor as gatekeeper for the investing public: Auditor independence and the CLERP reforms-a comparative analysis, Company and Securities Law Journal, 23(7), 416. Moroney, R, Campell, F and Hamilton, J 2011, Auditing A Practical Approach. Milton: John Wiley Sons Australia, Ltd. Tahir, FA, Idris, KM and Ariffin, ZZ 2014, Dimensions of Auditor Independence: A Pilot Study, International Journal of Business and Management, 9(6), 72. The HIH Royal Commission 2003, The failure of HIH: a critical assessment, in The Failure of HIH Insurance, Volume 1: A corporate collapse and its lessons, April, Commonwealth of Australia. Unger, D 2002, Contract Audits: Contingent Fees and Confidentiality. J. St. Tax'n, 21, 76. Von Wielligh, SP 2004, High inherent risk elements in financial statements of listed South African long-term insurers, Meditari: Research Journal of the School of Accounting Sciences, 12(1), 195-217.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

Male pregnancy free essay sample

Lee besides a useless little widget which is supposedly displaying a live feed of his ultrasound and vitals. It also had no information about male pregnancy or how it works, only what appeared to be a link to an article by John Jay College of Criminal Justice titled â€Å"Male Pregnancy, Designer Babies and Medical Nanotechnology. The link turned out to be just a picture and did not do anything. The page seemed to be more focused on people’s personal opinions of what Mr. Lee was doing, as it was dominated by statements about what people though and links to more posts from many more people. There were also links to popular news and entertainment websites such CNN, U. S. News and Oprah, however these served no purpose as they did not take you to the stories that they displayed. This website was published by RYT Hospital-Dwayne Medical Center, but the link to their page did not work either. We will write a custom essay sample on Male pregnancy or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Neither did the ones to the Privacy Notice nor Disclaimer. This website contained no real facts that would help that would be helpful to someone doing research, and would only be useful for entertainment purposes. After some research I learned that the website was just a hoax created by Mr. Lee Mingwei as an art project. This confirmed my suspicion, as the average person could clearly tell that some was wrong with this website after just a few minutes of using it.